I have experience helping parents navigate the school system with kids who learn differently.
ADHD, Dyslexia, 2e, executive function disorder, 504s, IEPs
Twice Exceptional (or 2e) is a term used to describe learners who are both gifted and have a learning challenge or disability. Their disability masks their giftedness and their giftedness masks their disability so often these "hard to figure out" kids fly under the radar in the school system. They are often described by parents and teachers as "a puzzle".
Executive Function Disorder is a way to describe learners who are bright but repeatedly sidetracked by their inability to keep track of what they're supposed to do and when. They might forget their books at school, lose their papers, or forget to turn in homework they've completed. They might have trouble managing their time, materials, or emotions.
Executive Function Disorder has a lot of overlap with ADHD (most kids with ADHD have trouble with executive functions) but some kids don't have any of the classic hyperactivity or inattention but are constantly late, lost or unprepared.